Thursday, May 21, 2020
Introduction One of the millennium development goals set by the United Nations is for all nations to achieve universal primary education. Many developing nations like Nigeria are working to ensure that the children and youth of their countries have access to free and compulsory primary education in an effort to educate the masses. Though Nigeria is making strides and improving the retention rates of its students, it still has the highest number of children out of school in the world. In Nigeria alone, more than 10.5 million students are out of school, the majority of them in northern Nigeria, and are mostly girls (Moser, 2014). Northern Nigeria is a predominately Islamic, rural, and vastly underdeveloped part of the country whenÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This part of the program functioned by rewarding a family with a 25 USD goat if a girl is able to complete school because she was not married away during the school year. (Erulkar Muthengi, 2009). The goat serves as an incentive for poor f amilies to keep the girl in school, increasing retention rates of girls in school, and reducing the rate of child marriages. My hypothesis is that the creation and enforcement of a similar program in Northern Nigeria would increase school attendance and retention rates for girls in region. Existing research on this topic focuses primarily on the causes of the gap in enrollment and retention rate between boys and girls in northern Nigeria, but no found studies have tried to explore or test solutions to the problem of gender discrimination. The dependent variable in this experiment would be the level of gender discrimination; the enrollment and retention rates of girls and the independent variable would be the implementation of the program and the presence of the goat as an incentive. The unit of analysis used in this experiment would be the individuals, particularly the girls because they are being surveyed and observed. Though the decision to enter marriage in certain cultures is u ltimately up to the parents, the students will either be encouraged or discouraged from entering
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Holding office from for a courageous eight years from 1789 to 1797, George Washington was one of the most significant presidents of all time. His other famous name is the Ã¢â¬Å"Founding FatherÃ¢â¬ of the United States of America; He enforced the maximum amount of terms to two. When he promoted guidelines for the United States leader, his beliefs and visions were accepted as his guidelines have stayed over the years and some differed over the centuries such as the foreign policies and the political policies applied similarly. We will write a custom essay sample on WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s Precedents Established or any similar topic only for you Order Now Some of WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s appliances have yet to differentiate from the past as they are still applied. Document A states two important factors: government power and its proper usage. The government utilizes its limited powers. Document A states Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¦so many checks and efficacious restraints to prevent it from degenerating to any specious of oppression. Ã¢â¬ Washington acknowledges the facts that the government cannot corrupt the balance and checks system. Document D elaborates on the basis of the Embargo Act, which proved beneficial. The Embargo Act explains how taxation is a requirement for society, with all imports, exports, and shipping. Document D by President Thomas Jefferson states Ã¢â¬Å"undelegated powers its acts are unauthoritative, void, and of no forceÃ¢â¬ . Jefferson believes that if the government will become more enforcing if they do not have the balance and checks system. They would have to do all that is necessary. If the government had enforced all necessities, there would have been no possibility for certain aspects of the political world There were many aspects that continue, as Washington would have wanted and some that didnÃ¢â¬â¢t. The process is handled today of the draft; Document G mentions the first concept of the topic. The draft is the sending of people to the military/army. Sometimes the draft was necessary especially if a war was to come about, but it somewhat belittled the freedom to a certain amount. One of the things that had gone wrong against WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s proposals is stated in Document I. Document I speaks about the Monroe Doctrine. The Monroe Doctrine basically states how The United States of America should not intervene with foreign battles and side with any European power. The Monroe Doctrine secures the United States because if the U. S would interfere, there is a possibility of battle that can evidently lead to war. Unfortunately history had repeated itself as the government decided to do what they feel and intervene in the Vietnam War (which really had nothing with the U. S. ). Some of the aspects Washington influenced have changed over the centuries. Document B states, Ã¢â¬Å"it is our policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign worldÃ¢â¬ , America, unfortunately, has formed relationships and alliance with European worlds. Document F shows how foreign connections can lead to betrayal or cruelty. The British had maintained the American ships and even violated some. All these foreign issues led to the War of 1812 between the British and the Americans. This settled the issues between America and Britain and fortunately settled possible future issues. Ã¢â¬Å"The baneful effects of the spirit of party generally. Ã¢â¬ , states Document B. In his Farewell Address, Washington believes if there are a separation and formation of different parties, new issues and corruption would occur. In reality, the formation of different parties promotes acceptance of new interrelated ideas. Washington proposed ideas that have been continued and have been overruled. He believed that the United States should separate from any European nation. He believed there should have been no formation of separate parties, which actually has changed over the centuries for positive reasons. Washington believed the government should be limited yet satisfied under the balances and checks system, and so they have been over the years. America has Ã¢â¬Å"repeated historyÃ¢â¬ as they ignore the Monroe Doctrine by fighting with European Alliances. Washington was a smart man; his ideas were accepted, proposed, accepted, ignored and changed. How to cite WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s Precedents Established, Papers
Saturday, April 25, 2020
Introduction The protection of consumer welfare is a critical government initiative. There are notable economic challenges associated with low income families. Therefore, policymakers must consider the implementation of workable economic strategies. This is vital in creating price and demand equilibriums (Arnold 2010, pp. 10).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The protection of consumer welfare specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In a typical economy, various consumers depict diverse preferences for various goods. It is vital to comprehend how policies have implications on the prevalent market trends. It is necessary to analyze the consumer behavior and preferences within specific economies. This paper presents a practical approach to policy implication on the purchasing trend within the market. The paper applies a hypothetical approach, with the analysis of the preference trend of goods X and Z. The Household Prefere nces over the Two Goods with Similar Policy Implications on the Household Items In Terms Of the Utility and Level of Consumption of the Two Goods Convex indifference curves are extensively used in the analysis of economic policies. In this scenario, the assumptions on the hypothetical goods are indicated. Good X is measured along the horizontal axis. On the other hand, good Z is measured along the vertical axis of the convex curve. The two policy options can be analyzed from the convex curve. The concept of Ã¢â¬Å"diminishing marginal utilityÃ¢â¬ dictates the nature of the convex curve to be applied in the analysis (Fakhrul Islam Jabbar 2010, pp. 26). In establishing the appropriate household preference for the two goods, the rule of Ã¢â¬Å"diminishing marginal utilityÃ¢â¬ may be applicable. The first policy advocates for the provision of the household with a voucher. The voucher is exchangeable for a specific quantity of the good X. Observably, the second proposition advocat es for the offering a supplement based on the income. This is to be sufficiently applied in buying the good of similar amount.Advertising Looking for essay on consumer law? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A normal household consumption preference is applicable for the realization of equal policy effect (Mceachern 2012, pp. 34). This relates to the utility and level of the consumption of the two goods. Given the two goods, X and Z, the household is able to define its preference. Consequently, the household can arrange these preferences in an order. In this context, the preferences remain complete. The policies provide an equal stance and significance. The graph below indicates the action of normal household preference necessary for the equal action of both policies. (From Gilbert 2004) The Household Preferences over the Two Goods with Potentially Different Policy Implications on the Household Items In Terms Of the Utility and Level of Consumption of the Two Goods To achieve this aim, the transitivity preference of the household is applicable. An important assumption can be drawn from this association. The disparity indicates that there is more preference for a particular good (Schotter 2009, PP. 45). Therefore, it can be deduced that if X is preferred to Z, it is true that the household has a spatial preference. The transitivity preference condition is eminent in this association. The disparities on the impact of these two policies emanates from the differences in preference for the two goods, X and Z. When the household depicts a higher level of preference for a particular good, the other is likely to be diminished. Alternatively, the less preferred good may be supplied in fewer quantities in the market. The law of Ã¢â¬Å"diminishing marginal utilityÃ¢â¬ may be applicable in explaining the variances in customer preferences (Feldman Serrano 2006, pp. 46).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The protection of consumer welfare specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Consequently, these have a potential impact on policy formulation. Policy makers recognize the importance of engaging public participation processes. There is a potential indication from a positive policy on the utility or consumption level of a specific good. The basic implication is that most consumers prefer to utilize goods that have most preferred qualities. It is assumed that the household may be satisfied with any policy advocating for a particular good or product. The graph below indicates the state of preference in which the consumers are better off. (From Gilbert 2004) Explanation of the Possibility of Occurrence of a Substitute Effect Associated With Either of the Above Policies Most markets are likely to experience a substitute effect. The impacts of substitute effects are always noticed in the demand of various goods. The effects of any transfo rmation within the price encourage the clients to choose a particular good. These clients are more likely to purchase a specific good. This trend may be due to its reduction in price. A consequent rise or increase in the price of goods is likely to cause a shift in the pattern of purchase (Mceachern 2009, pp. 59). There is bound to be an occurrence of a substitute effect within any market. Therefore, within any typical economy, the consumers are more likely to buy goods that retail at very low prices. The interaction of substitution and income effect may also play an important role in the development of substitution. The income of the household may shift. This is due to eminent economic factors within the entire market.Advertising Looking for essay on consumer law? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Basically, substitution effect refers to the transformation on the consumption trend. Substitution effect may entail the alteration in the utilization patterns. This occurs as a result of a change notable within relative prices of goods within the market. This trend can be noticed in the action of various customers or clients. This is always as a result of the eminent trends within the general market. There is an evident possibility of occurrence of a substitute for both of the products under context (Mceachern 2012, pp. 78). This can be due to several factors. There are several factors that might lead to the emergence of this pattern. In the present era, various elements play a significant role in consumer behavior and preference. Therefore, there is a high possibility of occurrence of a substitute effect. An Explanation Whether the Policies May Succeed At Both of the Goals Ideally, it is notable that these two policies are not likely to succeed at both of these goals. The competin g demand and supply are important factors within the general market. Ideally, there are many elements that determine the market equilibrium (Schotter 2009, PP. 71). It is imperative to note that the diverse factors associated with market patterns are critical. The variances observed in the household preference are critical. Particularly, this is in the determination of the success of the two policies. Market conditions within any economy are susceptible to both external and internal factors. These factors interact to alleviate the possibility of existence of a perfect market . Therefore, there is bound to be a state of disparity in the action of these two policies. The customer preferences are more likely to rule the market demand and supply trends. Apart from these, there are other external factors that may lead to the development of notable disparities. These include weather conditions, tastes, and prevailing fashion within a particular economy. Income is an important factor in th e determination of prevailing market trends. Generally, high or increased rate of income raises the demand schedule. Consequently, these have a positive impact on the level of supply. The equilibrium point denotes the critical point within any market. However, even in equilibrium states, customers have the capacity to identify themselves with trendy and valuable products. There are other approaches that might be applied. Introduction of new products with lower market prices is possible. This approach is likely to shift the focus of demand within the market (Mceachern 2012, pp. 112). Apart from this, there is a potential shift in the consumer interests within the general market. The introduction of the third good is likely to help in the shift in the basic centre of interest. The preference includes one of the vital factors that dictate the prevailing market conditions. The graph below indicates the likelihood of occurrence of a substitute effect between the two goods. Consequently, this has significant impact on the policies. (From Gilbert 2004) Calculation of the FirmÃ¢â¬â¢s Cost Minimizing Input Combination and the Corresponding Level of Minimum Cost It is supposed that the company is presently experiencing the conditions of a short-run. The firm also has a fixed level of K at 25 units. Therefore, the calculation of the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s minimizing input combination and the corresponding level of minimum cost is as follows: Production function = Q = K0.5L0.5 Q = K0.5L0.5Ã = (8 X 0.5) X (4 X 0.5)Ã = 2 X 4Ã = 8 Cost function TC = FC + VC FC = Q FC = K0.5 X L0.5 FC = 8 x 0.5 X 4 x 0.5Ã = 8 TC Ã¢â¬â 8 + 24Ã = 32 Cost minimization MC = MR (where MC represent marginal cost and MR represent marginal revenue) MC = change in TC/ change in Q TC = C X Q 25X4X8 = C X Q Q = 800 Ã¢â¬â C Q = (800 Ã¢â¬â C) C TC = 800C Ã¢â¬â C^2 MR = MC 800 Ã¢â¬â C^2 = 32 800 Ã¢â¬â 32 = 2C 768/2 = 2C/2 C = 384 (minimum cost) Q = 384 / 8Ã = 48 units (minimum u nits) Calculation of the Input Combination the Firm Will Use In The Long Run and the Corresponding Level of Minimum Cost Production function = Q = K0.5L0.5 Maximum units = 100 Labour cost =$ 8 Capital cost = $ 4 Total cost = 8Ãâ"4 = 32 x 100 unitsÃ = $3200 Total produce under the cost function Q = K0.5 X L0.5Ã = 8 Minimum cost per unit = 3200/8Ã =$400 An Explanation Whether the Firm Can Experience Economies of Scale In The Long Run The firm may not experience superior economies of scale in the long run. Basically, this is due to the observable differences within the unit cost variations (Schotter 2009, PP. 115). Important lessons can be drawn from the various outcomes of the calculations. As shown, the minimum cost in the short run is $384. On the other hand, it is notable that the long run cost is $400. The obvious variances in these costs depict important lessons. Generally, there is an inferior match between the expenditure and the income. List of References Arnold, A 2 010, Economics, South-Western Cengage Learning, Australia. Fakhrul Islam, M Jabbar, A 2010, Consumer preferences and demand for livestock products in urban Bangladesh, International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya. Feldman, M Serrano, R 2006, Welfare economics and social choice theory, Springer, New York, NY. Gilbert, S 200, Microeconomic Theory, viewed on http://www.owlnet.rice.edu/~econ370/gilbert/notes/preferences.pdf Mceachern, A 2009, Microeconomics: a contemporary introduction, Thomson/South-Western, Mason, OH. Mceachern, A 2012, Economics: a contemporary introduction, South-Western Cengage Learning, Mason, OH. Schotter, A 2009, Microeconomics: a modern approach, South-Western Cengage Learning, Mason, OH. This essay on The protection of consumer welfare was written and submitted by user Harry Osborn to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Non-Governmental Organizations essays Non-Governmental Organizations are assembled to aid people that are otherwise incapable. They are established to better the lifestyle and the living conditions that our fellow humans endure. Third World Countries lack many necessities that are taken for granted in the United States. This paper gave me a better outlook on what actually goes on in other countries were survival is the main aspect of everyday life. The research that was involved with writing my paper was somewhat hard to come by. My main source of information was the internet, but I wanted to find a country that hadnt been publicized about their problems. I looked for a poor country, that isnt really known to the world as one of the poorest societies. I had trouble locating current information that I could find on Mozambique, but I did find history on the country and based my paper on that. I looked for current information about Mozambique, but the bulk of returned information was tourist related. Before I wrote this paper I had never known of a country named Mozambique, learning a little about their history and getting a general view of how Mozambicans live their lives was interesting to me. It was difficult finding a potential resolution to the problems in Mozambique. Every solution that came to my mind was too small in scope to apply to the widespread problems in Mozambique. Establishing an Organization that isnt designed to make a profit was a pretty new concept to me. It was nice to think abstractly and offer something to people who are in need. As I progressed I realized that with careful disbursement of funds, and dedicated people, the state of the country could be improved. Though the idea of a Non-Profit organization to repair the country is great, the problems are sunken deep into the foundation of Mozambique. Dumping money into the situation is not always useful; Mozambique needs major reconstruct ...
Monday, March 2, 2020
Pop Culture and Evolution - The Hunger Games Evolution is not just a topic for a Biology class in school to cover it is found everywhere. There are many pop culture references and nods to the Theory of Evolution through Natural Selection in todays television, books, music, and movies. With The Hunger Games movie breaking box office records, I could not help but jump on the bandwagon and read the trilogy of books written by Suzanne Collins. Beyond a fast paced, edge of your seat thriller, I saw the authors ideas of a future world from an evolution Biologists point of view. The Hunger Games trilogy is set in the future after the collapse and near complete destruction of the world. The country of Panem has arisen from the ashes of what used to be North America and it consists of a Capitol somewhere in the Rocky Mountains, and 12 Districts that supply the affluent Capitol with all of the goods it needs. When the poor Districts tried to rebel, the Capitol took them down and created a yearly spectacle called The Hunger Games that is broadcast live like a reality show. As a reminder that the Capitol has all the power, each District is forced to send one boy and one girl between the ages of 12 and 18 that are chosen in a lottery drawing to compete to the death in the Hunger Games arena that is filled with traps and other dangerous creations made by the Capitol for their entertainment. The following paragraphs may contain spoilers if you have not read or seen The Hunger Games or its sequels, and Mockingjay. If you do not want to know details from these books or movies, you may not want to read the rest of this article. Otherwise, lets get into the world of Panem and explore the new species that reside there. The Mockingjay Arguably the most important new species in The Hunger Games trilogy is the mockingjay. These birds came into existence when female mockingbirds mated with the Capitol engineered male jabberjays. We are first introduced to this new species of bird in The Hunger Games book when Madge, the mayors daughter, gives heroine Katniss the gold pin with the mockingjay to wear as her token in the arena (in the movie, the pin is given to Katniss by her sister Prim). There are also mockingjays in the arena where Katniss uses their ability to repeat songs to communicate with her ally Rue. In Catching Fire we see the mockingjay become an increasingly important symbol. Plutarch Heavensbees watch shows a hologram of the bird. Also, before Katniss enters the arena for a second time, she wears a dress created by Cinna that turns her into a mockingjay after the outer layer burns away. Obviously, this new species of bird is the most important in the book entitled Mockingjay. The bird becomes a symbol of rebellion for the Districts, and Katniss finds herself becoming The Mockingjay as the symbolic leader. How did the mockingjay evolve in this fictional world of Panem? The Capitol created a species of bird through artificial selection called the jabberjay. The jabberjay could spy on enemies of the Capitol and repeat conversations word for word back to them. The Capitol could use this information to stop any rebellion attempts. After the rebels in the Districts figured out the scheme, they would feed the birds false information. Therefore the Capitol left the jabberjays, all male, to die in the wild. Instead of dying, the all male jabberjays began mating with female mockingbirds. Speciation occurred and mockingjays were born. Instead of being able to repeat entire conversations, mockingjays would repeat entire songs. These birds helped Katniss communicate with her ally inside the arena and also helped her become a symbol of hope for an entire nation. Tracker Jackers While it is never specified exactly how tracker jackers are created by the Capitol in any of the books, they are described as genetically altered wasps. Once again, the Capitol was manipulating nature and speeding up the evolution of species to do their dirty work. Tracker jackers will attack anyone who disturbs their nest and will follow them like a homing device until they have been stung with a venom that causes severe hallucinations and possibly death. Katniss uses the tracker jackers as a weapon in The Hunger Games when she is stuck in a tree because of the Career Tributes waiting to kill her below. She cuts a branch off the tree that contains a tracker jacker nest and it hits the ground near the Careers, so the tracker jackers attack and run them off, killing some in the process. While tracker jackers are not a product of natural selection, they are an evolutionary offshoot of wasps created through artificial selection. The genetic engineering of the tracker jackers caused a very swift microevolution of the species into a deadly killing machine. Muttations One last type of Capitol created killer is what Suzanne Collins called a muttation. Clearly a play on the word mutation, these can be combinations of just about anything. In the arena, Katniss and Peeta come face to face with muttations that look to be a mix of something like a wolf and their fellow dead tributes. This type of muttation tears the District 2 Tribute Cato to pieces. The book Catching Fire had a new arena that contained muttations that resembled monkeys. However, these monkeys had sharp claws and teeth that could puncture internal organs. When the Tributes make eye contact and quick movements, the monkey muttations attack and even kill the District 6 tribute. In Mockingjay, muttations appear in the form of something that seems to be a human and lizard hybrid down in the sewers of the Capitol. These deadly creatures come after the Sharp Shooter Squad as they make their way to the Presidents mansion. The talon-like claws even tear apart some of the squadron before they can make it out of the sewer alive. Again, these muttations, much like the jabberjays and tracker jackers, were made in a lab somewhere in the Capitol to continue the punishment of the districts of Panem. It isnt specified exactly how they are made, but genetic engineering that lead to microevolution is the most likely explanation. The only way to see into the future is through the eyes of a novelist. It is interesting to see where they believe evolution will take species many years down the road.
Friday, February 14, 2020
Facilitating Change in Health and Social Care - Essay Example The Economic factor is one of the key aspects in case of health and social care services. In this regard, Plamping (n.d) claimed that rising cost of the health and social care services leads to certain challenges for patients. However, it is witnessed that governmental authorities have availed financial resources to the health and social care organizations for the betterment of health and social care services. Plamping argued that through incorporating economic as well as cost-effective approach, care organizations could bring changes in health and social care services for the betterment of future. At the same time, the workforce is one of the essential aspects in case of health and social care services. Thus, it is essential for the health and social care organizations to enhance the skills and ability of the workforce for greater effectiveness in future. Apart from this, it can also be claimed that Whitstable Nursing Home (WNH) can reduce the cost of the workforce for improving the ir opportunities in terms of health and social care services. The rising expectation and quality care were driving the need for change. Social and demographic issues can negatively affect the overall performances of the health and social care services. For an instance, it can be argued that an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s health-related behavior such as smoking could adversely affect the surrounding and the physical environment. On the other hand, it can be claimed that social and cultural values (Plumbing, n.d.).